Overhead and Gantry Cranes
Part Number Title:
Occupational Safety and Health Standards
1910 Subpart N
Materials Handling and Storage
The rules you follow will depend on the type of facility you operate in and the type of equipment you utilize.
Generally speaking you will have four sources of information:
- OSHA regulations
- Industry standards
- Company policy
- Manufacturer’s instructions
OSHA 1910.179 incorporates ANSI/ASME B30.2 and states that all cranes must meet the design spec of B30.2
B30.2 explains the cranes covered are top running bridge, top running trolley
OSHA 1910.179 states that any cranes with similar characteristics are also covered, including gantry and semi-gantry cranes.
A designated person is someone that is assigned or appointed by the employer (typically in writing) as being qualified to do the task. It is more complex than a simple, “hey you, go do”.
The definition for ‘qualified’ comes from the ANSI standards and usually comes through a documented assessment or evaluation to show the designated person has the knowledge, training or experience pertaining to the work.
An initial inspection is a need-based inspection and has nothing to do with time intervals. They can happen under a variety of circumstances, including:
- new installation
- relocation of the crane
- significant repairs
Time-based inspections is a catch-all term for the “frequent” and “periodic” inspections in the regulation.
Frequent inspections are to be done on a 1-30 day interval. This covers the daily/shift inspections, as well as the monthly inspection.
Periodic inspections are understood as annual inspections, but the actual is 1-12 months, depending on environment, condition and use.
OSHA 1910.179 applies to overhead cranes used in general industry
Specifically, the scope covers top running bridge, top running trolley cranes.
This standard does not apply to underhung systems
The information in OSHA 1910.179 can be broken down into 4 broad categories
- general info (capacities, definitions)
- design specs
- inspection requirements for crane and wire rope
- general operating do’s and do not’s
It does not cover
- the qualification process for operators
- who is responsible for what
- underhung systems.
Very general with a lot of incorporation by reference.
- electrical systems
- fundamentals of brakes
- hoisting equipment including ropes and chains
- cabs, walkways, ladders, bumpers
It does not include:
- the building itself
- mounts and rails
- the crane structure such as runways and trolleys
The inspections are broken down into 3 parts
- routine or general inspections of equipment
- testing of equipment including load test
- wire rope inspection
Three standards in particular are important.
- 1910.184 – slings standard
- 1910.180 – mobile cranes in general industry
- 1910.178 – forklifts
This is essentially an OSHA shortcut that means ‘go see something else’. It carries the same weight as the standard itself. In this case, the ‘something else’ is B30.2 from 1967.
A modification is made any time anything is changed on the crane from how it was originally manufactured. Permission must be received in writing, typically from the equipment manufacturer, but alternatively from an engineer.
Additionally, if the modification changes the capacity of the crane, you are required to put it through a rated load test.
These specifications are applicable to your facility any time you design or install your own system, even if someone else made it.
Inspections are broken down into 3 broad categories:
- Time-based (known as ‘frequent’ & ‘periodic’)
- Preventative Maintenance
A preventative maintenance program, per the regulation, “shall be established” and “should be based on the manufacturer’s recommendation”.
Any time you are conducting preventative maintenance, you must also inspect the crane.
Frequent inspections include daily and monthly inspections. There are a few differences. ‘Daily’ refers to a shift inspection – a visual and audbile test to ensure the crane is functional and fit for purpose.
Monthly inspections must be documented and include the inspection of critical components, such as wire rope.
Our site has been using CICB for a number of years to train and maintain certification for our crane operators. They exhibit an extensive background in the crane industry and their approach to training is very thorough and comprehensive. CICB’s professional instructors are highly dedicated and motivate everyone in the class to strive for excellence. The material is well-organized and the training is presented in a clear and concise manner. The classroom instruction and actual hands-on training go beyond our expectations. Our employees leave the class with a better understanding of crane operation, their capabilities, and job safety.”
This class was one of the best I have ever coordinated for our employees! Jason was, by far, the best instructor I have ever seen present an extremely technical course. His personality was perfect for the audience and made him very relatable. His technical proficiency was exemplary! He is completely capable of and, for the most part, did teach the entire class without referring to the slides or reference material. He also went way above and beyond in his commitment to ensuring the students not only learned but retained the material and stayed late into each evening to assist those requiring additional assistance. The employees could not say enough great things about Jason's skills and commitment to learning. We now have 10 employees trained to operate our cranes and, even though the majority of them do not work together, a group of employees that overcame some adversity and became a cohesive team. They are begging me to bring the CICB back!”
The Instructor Larry Kime is absolutely one of the best instructors I have ever had, and I have a degree in mechanical engineering. Larry’s knowledge both written and practical is current and accessible. I would recommend Larry to a new beginner or someone that has been in the lifting industry their whole career